Jitter is an often-debated subject on the web audiophile forums. Like cables, there tend to be believers and non-believers. The goal of this treatise is to educate and share the current state of my jitter understanding.
Most audiophiles do not even realize that they have jitter until it is reduced. I liken it to looking through a window made of really old glass, when glass had ripples and bubbles in it. There is a spreading and distortion that widens and defocuses some images and creates an overall mild distortion. It is still obvious what is on the other side of the window, but it is not coming through with crystal clarity. Reducing (you will notice that I do not say "removing") jitter is like replacing the glass with a clean, flat piece of glazing. Things are now visible in great detail and with a "vividness" that was not there with the rippling glass. Jitter can be blamed for much of the "fatigue" that results from listening to some digital playback systems, just like it is fatiguing peering through rippled glass for any length of time.
Between Audio Streaming And Other Data Transfers
1) accurate data and
2) accurate timing, whereas non-real-time transfers only require accurate data.
Here is a concise, but probably not complete list of jitter contributors, including how each of these can or might add jitter to a digital audio system:1. Master Clock Jitter
This is the source clock for all of the data streaming timing, usually a quartz-crystal-controlled oscillator at a very high frequency. It may be a 11.2896MHz clock in a CD player for data sampled at 44.1kHz, or In Computer Audio systems, a clock that is software generated from an even higher frequency CPU clock. The jitter of these clocks is intrinsic to the crystal device, but also depends on the design of the oscillator circuit. In the case of the master clock being software generated, the jitter can also be dependent on the program code.
2. Servo-system/rotational jitter
This is the system in the CD player/Transport that determines the spin-rate of the CD. It is an electromechanical system. Even though most modern CD players have buffering of the data to create some tolerance to this jitter, there is usually a PLL (Phase-locked-loop) involved, which is usually still somewhat susceptible to jitter. For newer players that completely buffer the data at high-speed from a CD-ROM reader to a memory buffer, this jitter is not an issue.
3. Jitter from the pits on a CD
These are the pits in the CD media that represent the recorded data. Variation in the spacing of these pits result in jitter when reading the data. Commercially CD's created from a glass-master generally have more variation in the locations of the pits than a CD-R written at 1X speed on a good CD-R writer. Even though most modern CD players have buffering of the data to create some tolerance to this jitter, there is usually a PLL (Phase-locked-loop) involved, which is still somewhat susceptible to jitter. To determine if your player is susceptible, it is a simple experiment to re-write or "clone" a CD and then listen for playback differences from the commercial version. For newer players that completely buffer the data at high-speed from a CDROM reader to a memory buffer, this jitter is not an issue.
5. Logic buffering
The digital audio data must make its way through the system over wires/traces and sometimes through buffers, such as the buffer to drive the S/PDIF cable. Each of these buffers has finite reaction times and imprecise detection of changing signal levels. What this means is that even though the signal may not have much jitter coming into the buffer, it may exit with additional jitter. This jitter is a result of the speed of the device, thermal effects on the silicon die, power delivery on the die and even transmission-line effects.
6. Power subsystem
The DC power applied to each of the devices that must process or transmit the digital audio signal is critical. If this power varies in voltage, the devices will react differently to the applied digital signals. Power "noise" as it is referred to is probably one of the largest contributors to jitter. Voltage changes or "voltage droop" can happen anywhere on a circuit board, power cabling, or even on the silicon itself. Changes in power voltage will change the speed and reaction times of digital logic that is transmitting the digital signals resulting in jitter.
7. Toslink optical conversion
Optical conversion adds another layer of buffering on both the transmitting and receiving ends of the S/PDIF interface. This additional layer in itself adds jitter, regardless of whether it is optical or not because of (5). However due to its complexity, the optical interface adds more jitter than a simple logic buffer. For that reason, it has higher jitter/lower performance than a well-designed S/PDIF coax interface.
8. Digital Cables
Cables don't actively add jitter to the signal, however they can slow the signal transitions or "edges". When the edges are slowed, the receiver or buffer at the cable destination is less likely to detect the transition at the correct time with certainty, which results in jitter.
9. Transmission-line effects
TL effects are usually more of a problem on the S/PDIF coaxial cable, but may also be present on long traces on circuit boards. These occur because the signal transition is very fast and as a result, reflections occur on the wire or trace. The signal reflections from an earlier signal transition can return to the destination and "push" or displace a later signal edge, causing jitter. TL lines must be properly terminated and impedance-matched in order to minimize reflections and the potential resulting jitter. There are steps that can be taken to minimize this effect, such as using a longer S/PDIF cable.
10. Printed circuit board effects
There are at least two effects on a circuit board that can cause jitter, including signal crosstalk and ground-bounce. Crosstalk occurs when traces with high-speed signals are spaced closely. One signal induces voltage on the other signal. It is obvious how this can add to jitter. Ground-bounce occurs when the signal return current see a high-impedance on the circuit board due to ground-plane splits or long return paths. This creates a voltage drop in the ground-plane or return path. This voltage drop causes the signal to shift in voltage, which can result in jitter.
Fortunately, there are other low-jitter USB interfaces available now that not only support 24-bit/96kHz, they even compete with the best CD playback devices. In 2009, I believe we will see USB support for 24-bit/192kHz and even lower-jitter interfaces. USB is IMO the wired audio interface that will be most prevalent in the near future.
And Networked Audio
1) A true re-clocker that uses a free-running oscillator and stores data in a buffer
2) Re-clocker that uses a series of PLLs (Phase-Locked-Loops) to reduce jitter
3) Re-clocker that uses ASRC (Asynchronous Sample-Rate
Conversion) to reduce
You will notice that I always use the terms: "reduce jitter" or "extremely low jitter", even with my own products. This is because it is impossible to completely eliminate jitter, contrary to the claims of some manufacturers.
The true re-clocker (1) can deliver the lowest jitter of the three types because it is not influenced by any outside signals. Examples of these are: Pace-Car 2 and Genesis Digital Lens.
A series of PLLs (2) will reduce jitter, but PLLs are affected by the jitter in the input signal to some extent. The more PLLs that are cascaded and the lower the filtering of the PLL loop filter, the better the jitter reduction will be. Some high-end DACs use this technique.
The ASRC up-sampler of (3) is somewhat sensitive to incoming jitter and has the disadvantage of changing the data by up-sampling it. If you don't like the sound of that particular hardware up-sampler, there is nothing you can do about it. Examples of this are in many modern DACs and the Monarchy DIP.
Re-clockers of the same type are not all equal either. The jitter of the master-clock in the re-clocker can vary. The design of the circuits, the power sub-system and circuit-board layout has a huge impact on the performance of a re-clocker. In order to achieve extremely low jitter levels, all of these disciplines must be mastered and the implementation must be flawless.
Low-jitter clock technology has improved dramatically in the last 2 years, so newer re-clockers will usually take advantage of this.
Correlation To Audibility
For instance, I use two oscillators that are both specified at 2psec RMS jitter. The two oscillators sound radically different to me when used in a re-clocker in a resolving audio system. This leads me to believe that the spectrum, or frequency content of the jitter is as important or maybe even more important than the amplitude. I also believe that correlated jitter or jitter with a relationship to the data pattern is also more audible than random jitter. This seems to be the consensus in a number of AES papers.
Studies by the AES (analysis, not human testing) conclude that these are the thresholds of audibility:
 120psec P-P jitter audibility threshold for 16-bit DAC and 8psec P-P jitter audibility threshold for 20-bit DAC
 20psec P-P of data-correlated jitter audibility threshold at certain frequencies and "A simple model of jitter error audibility has shown that white jitter noise of up to 180psec P-P can be tolerated in a DAC, but that even lower levels of sinusoidal jitter may be audible"
Since many measurements (that don't specify any particular frequency content) performed by Stereophile in  are above 150psec or close to this, I do not believe that we have reached the limits of jitter audibility yet. I suspect that P-P jitter needs to be almost an order of magnitude smaller, or around 15psec to be inaudible in all systems. My experience with my own products seems to bear this out.
I believe the ability of the human ear/brain, particularly the trained ear, to hear minute differences, particularly data-correlated jitter, is grossly underestimated. The live listening AB/X studies published to date (that I have read) are inconclusive IMO. The systems used were not resolving enough IMO, the recording quality was not good enough and the test signals were random and not correlated and therefore inadequate to properly test for jitter audibility. I tend to believe the numbers arrived at by the AES analytical studies rather than these contrived A/BX tests.
Another interesting thing about audibility of jitter is it's ability to mask other sibilance in a system. Sometimes, when the jitter is reduced in a system, other component sibilance is now obvious and even more objectionable than the original jitter was. Removing the jitter is the right thing to do however, and then replace the objectionable component. The end result will be much more enjoyable.
Jitter can even be euphonic in nature if it has the right frequency content. Some audiophiles like the effect of even-order harmonics in tubes, and like tubes, jitter distortion can in some systems "smooth" vocals. Again, the right thing to do is reduce the jitter and replace the objectionable components. It is fairly easy to become convinced that reducing jitter is not necessarily a positive step, however this is definitely going down the garden path and will ultimately limit your pursuit of audio nirvana.
Sibilance in a system caused by preamp, amps and other components and cables can also be so high that changes in jitter are not very audible. This is why there is such contention on the web forums about jitter and its importance. What matters in the end is if you are happy with the sound of your system, and whether or not you can hear this distortion.
Asked Questions About Jitter
A: All formats stored on disk result in the same data-stream over S/PDIF. These are converted by the player software before they are transmitted. The transmission formats are different than the stored formats. Transmission of digital data is specific to each interface, USB, FireWire or S/PDIF. Once these are received, they are all eventually converted to S/PDIF and then I2S or directly to I2S bus. The jitter of the S/PDIF signal is in theory independent of the stored data format, but since software is generating the master clock, it can have an effect with some software and operating systems when using interfaces such as FireWire and USB.
Q: Why re-clock the digital data?
A: Because jitter at the clock inputs of the D/A converter causes modulation of output analog signal from the D/A converter. This is distortion. This modulation is a function of both the magnitude of the jitter and the spectra (frequency) of the jitter. This is one of the things that makes digital audio sound "digital" and not analog, along with sample rates that are not high enough. The evidence of this is really obvious when you compare several DAC's to one another. With a high-jitter input signal, they all tend to sound radically different. With a low-jitter digital input signal, they all start sound very similar. Each DAC behaves a bit differently in the face of jitter, the simplest ones tending to sound the worst with high-jitter input and the best with low-jitter input.
Q: If there is no clock in my computer interface, why do I need to re-clock?
A: The output from the PC, whether it is USB, FireWire or S/PDIF from a soundcard or Mac has the clock embedded in the data-stream. The clock is generated by the computer clock or by a local clock on the sound card. There is always a clock, or the data will not be transferred.
Q: Is the jitter different if I use Losses format versus .wav?
A: Jitter is in theory independent of the format that the data is stored, however since the master clock in many computer audio systems is generated by software, these things can all have an effect both on jitter and absolute frequency as well. I don't rule it out anyway.
Q: Can I use I2S interface from my computer to reduce jitter?
A: I2S is not a native interface for a PC or Mac, so it must be generated from another interface, such as USB, FireWire or S/PDIF. I2S is the native interface for the D/A chip, so all interfaces must end-up converted to I2S eventually. I2S is not the original clock in the PC, but is synchronous to the original clock.
I2S was created by Philips when the CD format was invented. It is comprised of three or four signals, including SDATA, SCLK, L/RCLK and MCLK. These are the standard interface on most D/A chips. If an I2S interface is thoughtfully designed, it can achieve lower jitter than a S/PDIF interface. The advantage of I2S is that it includes all of the relevant clocks and the serial data.
Q: If my DAC already has jitter reduction, what difference will a re-clocker make?
A: Most DACs use ASRC (Asynchronous Sample-Rate Conversion) to reduce the incoming jitter. All of these devices up-sample or re-sample the data using a local oscillator. To track the incoming data the re-sampling device must use a PLL to track the incoming stream. Since the local clock has its own jitter and a PLL is utilized, there is new jitter added and the PLL still has some sensitivity to incoming jitter. Re-clocking just before the DAC input can still make a big difference in overall jitter.
Q: If the clock is not present, will an external DAC just assume the input to be as per its own clock? If the rip were done by CD-ROM using the same clock freq as a DAC, will this give any added benefit?
A: DACs don't have clocks in general. The only clocks in typical DACs are for upsampling. DACs rely on the clock embedded in the incoming data-stream, whether it is S/PDIF, AES or Toslink. DACs recover the clock(s) using hardware. If the interface to the DAC is I2S, then the clocks are discrete so they drive the D/A directly without needing clock recovery.
Ripping has nothing to do with the timing accuracy of a data file. It is simply data. There is data and then there is the timing of when the data is presented to the D/A chip. This timing is not stored on the disk. Only the data is stored on the disk. The timing is recreated at playback time. No relationship to the music timing or beat.
Q: Can the original information without any timing errors be reconstructed using an external re-clocker like the Empirical Audio Pace-Car?
A: Re-clockers like the Pace-Car 2 generate a totally new clock, which is synchronous or tracking to the original clock, but with lower jitter. The original information is only data, not timing. The data is not changed at all in a true re-clocker like the Pace-Car. The timing is only implied by the standard frequency that is used at recording time, when the analog data was converted to digital. If the A/D clock had jitter, then the recording timing will be inaccurate. This cannot be fixed once the data is stored as a digital recording. If the D/A clock has jitter, then the playback timing will be inaccurate. This jitter can be minimized with re-clockers, up-samplers etc.
Is Empirical Audio Doing To Reduce Jitter?
We have developed several generations of Off-Ramp USB to S/PDIF converters, each new generation delivering lower jitter than the last. To insure that these designs perform well, we manually layout all of our circuit boards and use the highest quality parts that we can procure, such as the excellent Superclock4. Clocks are cabled with GHz coaxial cables. No expense is spared.
We initially designed the Pace-Car 2 re-clocker to address the high jitter inherent in most Wi-Fi devices. We wanted the audiophile to be able to choose the wireless interface of his liking and not worry about jitter performance. Then, we added features so that the Pace-Car can be used with a wide variety of other devices, including Transports, USB interfaces, PCI cards, Apple TV, Transporter and others. Even the most inexpensive devices can have ultra-low jitter with a Pace-Car added. It does not matter what the device is, the same low-jitter output results with the Pace-Car.